A Devil of a time at Swinside Stone Circle

Small but perfectly formed, dramatically located with spectacular views, would be an estate agent’s description of Swinside Stone Circle. They’d probably skip over the tale about how the stones were actually being used to construct a church when the Devil pulled the building down and sunk the stones into the ground. No one wants to know their favourite stone circle has an association with the Devil.

Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

This local superstition, an invention of the 15th or 16th Century, gave Swinside Stone Circle the alternative name of Sunkenkirk Circle but ignores the long history of stone circle building in the English Lake District. This northern region may be something of backwater these days, but 5000 years ago this was the epicentre of Neolithic civilisation in the British Isles. There is a high concentration of stone circles in and around the area.

Lake District, Cumbria

Lake District, Cumbria

Lake District, Cumbria

Lake District, Cumbria

Track to Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

Track to Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

I’d set off in the late morning, the southern Lake District was bathed in bright winter sunlight and there were some beautiful views of snow-capped hills and red-golden bracken on the hillsides. The sort of day when the English Lake District is breathtakingly beautiful.

Track to Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

Track to Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

Track to Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

Track to Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

This was the first time I’d visited Swinside, but after my visits to Castlerigg Stone Circle and Long Meg and Her Daughters I was keen to see Swinside Stone Circle as well. If you want to visit this off-the-beaten-track stone circle be aware that there are no road signs to help you in the adventure. I drove past the track I wanted twice before working out where I needed to be.

Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

I parked the car on a roadside near the tiny village of Broadgate and walked for 30 minutes or so to reach Swinside, climbing up a steep hill before the track flattened out across the fell side offering views for miles to the north. A few desolate-looking sheep munched on grass and I knew how they felt as the sun disappeared to be replaced by dark clouds and intermittent freezing rain.

Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

The stone circle sits on a remote plateau in the middle of the fell which you might think is natural, but excavations have shown that this area was created by Neolithic peoples several thousand years ago. The fifty-five stones, hauled here from some distance, are held upright in holes filled with small pebbles.

Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

Swinside Stone Circle, Lake District, Cumbria

I’ll say this of the builders, they had an eye for a beautiful and atmospheric location and weren’t too concerned about the effort it took to construct these monuments. To the north are the mountains of the Lake District, importantly though, a short distance south hidden by the fells is the Irish Sea coast and the port of Millom. Presumably this was an auspicious site for trade and fishing.

A family forlorn, Long Meg and Her Daughters

The fifty-nine granite stones (The Daughters) that make up the circle and the huge sandstone monolith (Long Meg), that comprise the wondrous Long Meg and Her Daughters Neolithic stone circle, are an extraordinary sight to behold.

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

I can’t describe the feeling of being in the presence of this ancient monument better than William Wordsworth, the great Lake District poet, who penned the following lines after a visit in 1833:

A weight of awe, not easy to be borne
Fell Suddenly upon my spirit, cast
From the dread bosom of the unknown past,
When first I saw that sisterhood forlorn –
And Her, whose strength and stature seemed to scorn
The power of years – pre-eminent, and placed
Apart, to overlook the circle vast.
Speak Giant-mother! tell it to the Morn,
While she dispels the cumbrous shades of night;
Let the Moon hear, emerging from a cloud,
When, how and wherefore, rose on British ground
That wondrous Monument, whose mystic round
Forth shadows, some have deemed, to mortal sight
The inviolable God that tames the proud.

This is no ordinary ancient monument. At over 100m in width this is the third largest stone circle in Britain and the sixth largest in the world. So grand is the scale of Long Meg and Her Daughters that the only way to appreciate the magnitude of what you’re seeing is to view it from the air. Luckily, Visit Cumbria has an arial photo on its website. Viewed from the air or not, this is a magnificent place.

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

There were perhaps seventy-seven stones in the circle, eighteen having vanished over the centuries. Still, we should be grateful that any stones are standing at all. In the 18th Century the landowner, Colonel Lacy, decided to have the stones removed so he could plough the field (some say he thought there was buried treasure). As the work began a terrifying thunderstorm erupted, taken as an omen that the stones should be left alone.

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

This story adds to the local superstition that the stones are a witches coven turned to stone. It’s said that if any unsuspecting visitor manages to count the stones twice and gets the same number both times, the spell will be broken and the witches brought back to life. Given the size of the stones, the heaviest is estimated to be thirty tonnes, these were some big witches.

Long Meg is the most impressive of all the stones. Quarried from red sandstone on the banks of the River Eden over two miles away, one side of Long Meg is decorated with carvings. These enigmatic spiral, ‘cup and ball’ and concentric circle designs are still visible today. As is some more modern graffiti.

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

The stone is associated with many legends. It is said to be the petrified remains of a local witch, Meg of Meldon, who apparently existed in the 17th Century; another superstition states that if you walk around the circle then press your ear to Long Meg you can hear her talk. This terrifying prospect hasn’t stopped people from making offerings at the base of Long Meg and in the trees within the circle.

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

None of this explains why this protected national monument has a farm track running through the middle of it, or why the entire area seems to be a toilet for local cows. Is this really how we treat one of our most important ancient structures? Does the local farmer hate people visiting so much that standing in cow shit comes as standard? Perhaps the witches should be brought back to life…

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

Long Meg and Her Daughters, Little Salkeld, Cumbria

A little distance away from Long Meg and Her Daughters is more evidence of the thriving Neolithic civilisation that existed in this area. Just outside the town of Penrith lies Mayburgh Henge, one of three nearby Neolithic henges that acted as meeting places for pre-historic communities. The giant stone in the centre of the huge earth bank that surrounds the site is the only remaining stone of four originals.

Mayburgh Henge, Penrith, Cumbria

Mayburgh Henge, Penrith, Cumbria

Mayburgh Henge, Penrith, Cumbria

Mayburgh Henge, Penrith, Cumbria

Mayburgh Henge, Penrith, Cumbria

Mayburgh Henge, Penrith, Cumbria

Mayburgh Henge is fascinating. It’s a huge structure, the surrounding bank is made with approximately 20,000 tonnes of stone brought from the nearby River Eden. There is a gap in the bank forming an east facing entrance and framing the one remaining standing stone as you enter the henge. It is a shame that the M6 motorway runs close by and peaceful enjoyment of this place is impossible.

A Pagan Christmas, exploring Castlerigg Stone Circle

Perched on a hilltop plateau dramatically located in a natural amphitheatre created by the mountains of the northern Lake District, the Castlerigg Stone Circle must be one of the most atmospheric sites for a neolithic stone circle anywhere in Britain. Stonehenge may be bigger, but it can’t rival the intense sense of place you feel when you stand in the centre of Castlerigg Stone Circle.

Information sign at Castlerigg Stone Circle, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Information sign at Castlerigg Stone Circle, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Castlerigg Stone Circle with views to the south, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Castlerigg Stone Circle with views to the south, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Castlerigg Stone Circle backed by Blencathra and Skiddaw, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Castlerigg Stone Circle backed by Blencathra and Skiddaw, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Constructed over 5000 years ago, sometime around 3200 BC, Castlerigg is one of the oldest stone circles in Britain and Europe. The people who built it knew what they were doing. The 360º panoramic views offer spectacular vistas of some of the grandest Lake District mountains, including the towering Blencathra, Skiddaw to the north, Helvellyn, Catbells and Great How to the south.

Castlerigg Stone Circle, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Castlerigg Stone Circle, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Castlerigg Stone Circle backed by Blencathra, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Castlerigg Stone Circle backed by Blencathra, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

It is a magical place to visit at any time of year, although I prefer it when it is freezing cold and the rain is accompanied by driving winds that chill you to the core. Luck would have it that on my recent visit these were the exact weather conditions I encountered. Even the local sheep looked fed up and they’re used to this weather.

One of numerous neolithic sites in the northern English county of Cumbria and the Lake District National Park, Castlerigg probably has forty large stones. I say ‘probably’ because local folklore has it that it is impossible to count the real number of stones, and the ‘official’ number has fluctuated over the years.

Castlerigg Stone Circle, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Castlerigg Stone Circle, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Castlerigg Stone Circle, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Castlerigg Stone Circle, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Depending upon who you ask the stones number either thirty-eight, forty or forty-two. Although on the information board at the entrance they show forty-seven stones. I counted sixty-five, although I was seeing double thanks to the gale force wind making my eyes water.

The tallest stones are around 2.5 metres high, including two large stones which mark the northern entrance into the circle. On the eastern side of the circle is a rectangle of stones that jut into the circle and probably had a ceremonial function – no artefacts have been unearthed to prove this claim although the solar alignment indicates a religious role.

Views south from Castlerigg Stone Circle, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Views south from Castlerigg Stone Circle, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Castlerigg Stone Circle, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Castlerigg Stone Circle, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Visiting this place at Christmas started me thinking about the origins of the Christian festival, and the pagan traditions it displaced when Roman Emperor, Constantine, adopted Christianity as the official religion of the Empire in 380 AD. Attempting to displace the traditional cult of sun worship, the new religion absorbed much of the old for its own ends. Christmas merged seamlessly with the Roman celebration of Saturnalia.

Castlerigg Stone Circle, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Castlerigg Stone Circle, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Similarly the pagan Celtic tradition of Yule, celebrated by northern European tribes, was also absorbed into Christianity, which came late to northern parts of the Roman Empire. Yule, or the Winter Solstice, is a traditional Celtic ‘Fire Festival’ celebrating the end to the darkest days of the year; it still influences our modern rituals around Christmas. Castlerigg Stone Circle, aligned to celebrate the solstice, was part of this tradition.

Entrance stones, Castlerigg Stone Circle, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Entrance stones, Castlerigg Stone Circle, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Castlerigg Stone Circle, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Castlerigg Stone Circle, Keswick, Lake District, Cumbria

Yule logs, Christmas trees, holly wreaths and mistletoe owe their origins to numerous pre-Christian beliefs and traditions that survived the onset of the Christianisation of northern Europe. Even Santa Claus (Saint Nicholas) is pagan in origin, although I’m pretty sure he was invented by the marketing team at Coca Cola.

All this paganism goes some way to explaining why those religious zealots, the Puritans, outlawed the celebration of Christmas when Oliver Cromwell was running England in the 1640s. What Cromwell and his regicidal compatriots would make of our commercialised Christmas we can only guess at, although I have a feeling Christmas would be cancelled once again.

Walking in a winter wonderland on High Street

It started so promisingly. Blue skies, sunshine illuminating the golden hills surrounding Haweswater and a crisp early morning that normally means a glorious day and wonderful views. Then again…you can never take anything for granted when walking in the English Lake District. As I was trudging up Kidsty Pike on my way to High Street the weather turned, the clouds descended and the snow began to fall, obscuring the valley below.

Haweswater near High Street, Lake District, Cumbria

Haweswater near High Street, Lake District, Cumbria

High Street circuit, Lake District, Cumbria

High Street circuit, Lake District, Cumbria

Haweswater, Lake District, Cumbria

Haweswater, Lake District, Cumbria

This corner of the Lake District National Park feels remoter than its more illustrious counterparts in the central and western Lakes, but it offers fabulous walks and views to rival any in the region. The plan was straightforward, from Mardale Head on Haweswater I’d skirt the shoreline and go up Kidsty Pike to High Street; pausing to take the views before descending over Mardale Ill Bell and past Small Water Tarn.

My start point, Haweswater, was a natural lake until 1935 when the valley was dammed and flooded to provide water for Manchester. The decision caused an outcry, not only was this a beautiful valley but construction of the reservoir meant that two communities would be submerged.

High Street circuit, Lake District, Cumbria

High Street circuit, Lake District, Cumbria

Haweswater from Kidsty Pike, Lake District, Cumbria

Haweswater from Kidsty Pike, Lake District, Cumbria

Kidsty Pike, Lake District, Cumbria

Kidsty Pike, Lake District, Cumbria

Haweswater from Kidsty Pike, Lake District, Cumbria

Haweswater from Kidsty Pike, Lake District, Cumbria

The villages of Measand and Mardale Green were lost forever under the water but occasionally the water level drops enough to reveal the old buildings. When I was a child during the drought of 1976 my parents took me there, the water so low it was once again possible to walk through the streets of Mardale Green. The reservoir contains 18 billion gallons, providing North West England with around 25 percent of its water.

Kidsty Pike, Lake District, Cumbria

Kidsty Pike, Lake District, Cumbria

En route to High Street, Lake District, Cumbria

En route to High Street, Lake District, Cumbria

En route to High Street, Lake District, Cumbria

En route to High Street, Lake District, Cumbria

There is more than mountains and drowned villages to this walk though. The name High Street, at 828 metres the highest point of my walk, originates 2000 years ago when this was the most elevated Roman road in Britain. Linking settlements at Brougham and Ambleside, it was part of Roman supply routes to Hadrian’s Wall, the border between Scottish barbarians (a Roman term, not mine) and the Roman Empire.

Climbing steadily upwards towards the summit, there is something wonderful in the knowledge that you’re walking in the footsteps of ancient history. The tops of this range of hills are broad and ‘flat’, perfect for road building so Roman armies and supplies could avoid ambush in the wooded valleys below.

En route to High Street, Lake District, Cumbria

En route to High Street, Lake District, Cumbria

Trig Point on High Street, Lake District, Cumbria

Trig Point on High Street, Lake District, Cumbria

High Street, Lake District, Cumbria

High Street, Lake District, Cumbria

These characteristics also lent themselves to the hosting of summer fairs in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Local farming communities would gather on the summit to exchange lost sheep, buy and sell animals, and take part in traditional games such as Cumberland Wrestling and horse racing. Some locals still refer to High Street as Racecourse Hill, making it one of the more unusual racecourses in the country.

Descending from High Street, Lake District, Cumbria

Descending from High Street, Lake District, Cumbria

Descending from High Street, Lake District, Cumbria

Descending from High Street, Lake District, Cumbria

Descending from High Street, Lake District, Cumbria

Descending from High Street, Lake District, Cumbria

On a good day the views across the Lake District from High Street are nothing less than spectacular. Today the weather was determined to deny me the full 360º panorama, but views aren’t everything. There is something profoundly moving about standing alone on a hill top, all noise muffled by a blanket of snow, hearing only the sound of the wind.

Small Water Tarn, Lake District, Cumbria

Small Water Tarn, Lake District, Cumbria

Small Water Tarn, Lake District, Cumbria

Small Water Tarn, Lake District, Cumbria

Small Water Tarn, Lake District, Cumbria

Small Water Tarn, Lake District, Cumbria

The walk along the ridge was accompanied by gusting snow; by the time I reached the trig point on High Street’s summit it was pretty much a blizzard. I set off for Mardale Ill Bell but the cloud persisted for much of my descent until, suddenly, the sun burst through and illuminated the landscape around me. It was quite magical. Finally, below the cloud, I got good views over Small Water Tarn and Haweswater before returning to Mardale Head.

Haweswater, Lake District, Cumbria

Haweswater, Lake District, Cumbria

Just in case anyone was thinking of taking a cooling dip in the reservoir after their exertions, this warning sign should give them pause for thought…although it would need to be a warmer day than the one I spent on High Street to persuade me to take the plunge.

A festive walk over Catbells

Just to be clear, the Catbells referred to in the title of this post is a picturesque hill in the northern part of the English Lake District, and not some weird tradition involving cats, their bells and my size ten walking boots. Please don’t call any animal rights groups, no cats were hurt during the entirely harmless activity of fell walking. Well, I say entirely harmless, but after ten months in the Netherlands my legs were in pieces on the hills.

Derwent Water with Skiddaw and Belncathra in cloud, from Skelgil Bank, Lake District, Cumbria

Derwent Water with Skiddaw and Belncathra in cloud, from Skelgil Bank, Lake District, Cumbria

Newlands Valley from Skelgill Bank, Lake District, Cumbria

Newlands Valley from Skelgill Bank, Lake District, Cumbria

Catbells with Derwent Water in background, Lake District, Cumbria

Catbells with Derwent Water in background, Lake District, Cumbria

I’ve spent a lot of time in the Lake District but it is quite rare for me to visit the northern edge of the National Park. The moment I started the steep ascent up Skelgill Bank to Cat Bells I remembered why: whenever I walk in this area the weather almost always turns violent, typically involving strong winds and driving rain. True to form, I was greeted by a sudden downpour which turned to hailstone. I’d been warned.

Once, climbing Skiddaw – a short distance away – I was forced to crawl on my hands and knees by winds gusting in excess of 100mph. I actually saw someone blown off their feet that day. The winds on Catbells weren’t that vicious, but when I reached the top of High Spy I could hear the wind roaring up the valley and through a gap in the crags. It sounded like a jumbo jet taking off.

Looking forward to High Spy, Lake District, Cumbria

Looking forward to High Spy, Lake District, Cumbria

Derwent Water from Blea Crag, Lake District, Cumbria

Derwent Water from Blea Crag, Lake District, Cumbria

The View from Maiden Moor, Lake District, Cumbria

The View from Maiden Moor, Lake District, Cumbria

On a good day this is one of the most beautiful walks there is in the northern Lakes. There are sweeping views over Derwent Water, Bassenthwaite Lake, Newlands Valley, the Skiddaw range and Blencathra. It is stunning, but who wants perfect weather conditions when you can have gale force winds, driving rain and low cloud obscuring the views?

My plan was simple, walk the horseshoe which goes over Catbells, Maiden Moor and High Spy before dropping down to a gap at the top of the valley and climbing up Dale Head and Hindscarth before winding my way back down into the valley below. Fate, and the weather, had different plans.

The cairn at the summit of High Spy, Lake District, Cumbria

The cairn at the summit of High Spy, Lake District, Cumbria

Descending to Dale Head Tarn with Dale Head behind, Lake District, Cumbria

Descending to Dale Head Tarn with Dale Head behind, Lake District, Cumbria

The view down Newlands Valley, Lake District, Cumbria

The view down Newlands Valley, Lake District, Cumbria

Descending from High Spy to the top of Newlands Valley where Dale Head Tarn sits bleakly on the fell, I started the long slog up Dale Head. A small voice in my head had urged me to descend into the valley and head back, but I persevered upwards only for the cloud to suddenly obscure the entire top of Dale Head.

The view over Dale Head Tarn from Dale Head ascent, Lake District, Cumbria

The view over Dale Head Tarn from Dale Head ascent, Lake District, Cumbria

Cloud covers Dale Head, Lake District, Cumbria

Cloud covers Dale Head, Lake District, Cumbria

Cloud covers Dale Head, Lake District, Cumbria

Cloud covers Dale Head, Lake District, Cumbria

Descending into Newlands Valley, Lake District, Cumbria

Descending into Newlands Valley, Lake District, Cumbria

This sort of thing happens all the time in the Lake District, one of the reasons walking here can be tricky, sometimes dangerous. It is easy to be caught out by the weather and find yourself lost. I wasn’t especially keen to spend the next two hours in cloud, spotting a zig-zag route down to the valley I made good my escape.

Old farm gate post, Newlands Valley, Lake District, Cumbria

Old farm gate post, Newlands Valley, Lake District, Cumbria

Looking down Newlands Valley, Lake District, Cumbria

Looking down Newlands Valley, Lake District, Cumbria

Looking back up Newlands Valley, Lake District, Cumbria

Looking back up Newlands Valley, Lake District, Cumbria

Catbells is a relatively easy walk offering great views and is rightly popular. Get beyond the short loop that drops into the valley from Catbells though and you soon find yourself alone, occasionally bumping into another walker. If Catbells is the epitome of picturesque Lake District, things get a little more rugged further up but the scenery is never less than spectacular (at least when you can see it).

Looking back up Newlands Valley, Lake District, Cumbria

Looking back up Newlands Valley, Lake District, Cumbria

Newlands Valley, Lake District, Cumbria

Newlands Valley, Lake District, Cumbria

Impressive ram in Newlands Valley, Lake District, Cumbria

Impressive ram in Newlands Valley, Lake District, Cumbria

Amidst all this natural beauty it is hard to imagine that you are walking through an industrialised landscape. Every now and then you can spot some old mine workings, evidence of the once thriving lead mining industry which this area was famous for up until the end of the 19th Century. Long gone now, but the physical scars still remain.

A walk to wintery Helvellyn

Spring may have finally sprung in the UK, but no one has told England’s third highest mountain that winter is over. As this was likely to be my last time in the area for a while, the free day I had in the Lake District National Park was reserved for hill walking, and Helvellyn was my destination. Unfortunately, I hadn’t factored in a considerable amount of snow and ice on top of the hill. I should have been better prepared, I’ve encountered snow on the summit of Helvellyn in May.

Helvellyn and Red Tarn, Lake District, England

Helvellyn and Red Tarn, Lake District, England

Helvellyn is a mountain I’ve climbed too many times to recall, but I never tire of clambering over the classic horseshoe trail: up Striding Edge, over the crown of the hill and back down Swirral Edge – familiar names on this legendary mountain. Situated in the heart of the English Lake District, Helvellyn is a popular hill amongst Lake District enthusiasts, so-much-so that there is a website dedicated to promoting the mountain’s glories. Even to me that seems a step too far.

Heading towards Greenside Mine, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

Heading towards Greenside Mine, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

Heading towards Greenside Mine, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

Heading towards Greenside Mine, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

Greenside Mine, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

Greenside Mine, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

Greenside Mine, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

Greenside Mine, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

Although I clambered to within 20 or 30 metres of the top, the last section of Swirral Edge was too icy to risk without crampons or an ice axe. A slip either way would result in a fall of several hundred feet. I was lucky that a person coming down had a spare ice axe, which he was generous enough to offer to me to help with the descent. It was disappointing to get so close and not reach the summit but the rest of my walk was wonderful.

View back down the valley, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

View back down the valley, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

View of Raise and Glenridding Common, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

View of Raise and Glenridding Common, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

Snow melt, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

Snow melt, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

Starting out from the village of Glenridding – which sits on picturesque Ullswater, the inspiration for Wordsworth’s Daffodils poem – I chose to avoid the steeper, faster route up Little Cove towards Hole in the Wall. Heading instead towards Red Tarn by skirting around the base of Birkhouse Moor, en route passing one of the Lake District’s many disused mines. The Greenside Mine was the largest lead mine in the Lake District and was mined from the 1690s until the 1960s. There are still some mine buildings, and the scar of the mine works is carved into the hillside.

Helvellyn with Striding Edge (L) and Swirral Edge (R), Lake District, England

Helvellyn with Striding Edge (L) and Swirral Edge (R), Lake District, England

Helvellyn and Red Tarn, Lake District, England

Helvellyn and Red Tarn, Lake District, England

Helvellyn, Lake District, England

Helvellyn, Lake District, England

In an area notorious for bad weather, there was barely a breath of wind as I started the long ascent to Red Tarn. Under a warm Spring sun, I suddenly found myself wearing several layers of unnecessary clothing and was glad when I finally reached the tarn and the glorious view of snow-capped Helvellyn. Although it was mid-week, there were plenty of people taking the opportunity to do the walk; I could see small shapes dotted along Striding Edge and on the summit.

Swirral Edge, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

Swirral Edge, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

The snow line, Swirral Edge, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

The snow line, Swirral Edge, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

View of Red Tarn from Swirral Edge, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

View of Red Tarn from Swirral Edge, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

The snow line, Swirral Edge, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

The snow line, Swirral Edge, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

I decided Striding Edge might be icy and opted to go up Swirral Edge, which afforded tremendous views over Red Tarn and back down the fells. After falling short of the top I headed to Hole in the Wall and descended into the beautiful parallel valley of Grisedale, finally reaching Patterdale and the road back to Glenridding.

Hole in the Wall, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

Hole in the Wall, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

Hole in the Wall, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

Hole in the Wall, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

Descending into Grisedale, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

Descending into Grisedale, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

Descending into Grisedale, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

Descending into Grisedale, Helvellyn, Lake District, England

After the horrendous weather when I was in the area in December I wasn’t expecting great things. This time though, thankfully, the weather chose to be hospitable. It made for one of those days which make the Lake District so special.

Whitehaven, the American War of Independence and a question of ‘What if?’

Cleopatra’s Nose Theory argues that chance plays a big role in historical outcomes. The theory goes that had Cleopatra’s nose been bigger Mark Anthony wouldn’t have found her physical charms so irresistible, and the whole course of Western civilisation would have been different. Putting aside the inconvenient fact that Mark Anthony was at least equally attracted to Cleopatra’s intellectual charms, this is the ultimate historical ‘What if?’

The last pharaoh, Cleopatra and her nose

The last pharaoh, Cleopatra and her nose

While it may only merit a bit-part in the annals of history, the small Cumbrian town of Whitehaven is home to a less well known ‘What if?’

Had things been different, George Washington – Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American War of Independence, one of the Founding Fathers and first President of the United States – might have been raised near Whitehaven and not in Virginia. Washington’s grandmother, Mildred, was from Virginia. When her first husband, Lawrence Washington, died she married George Gale, a tobacco trader from Whitehaven. Mildred moved to England with her new husband, dying in Whitehaven in 1701. She is buried in St. Nicholas’ Churchyard in the town centre.

St.Nicholas' Church, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

St.Nicholas’ Church, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

St.Nicholas' Church, Whitehaven Harbour, Cumbria, England

St.Nicholas’ Church, Whitehaven Harbour, Cumbria, England

Had Mildred brought her son, George’s father, Augustine Washington to England with her, the course of Washington’s life and, quite possibly, the course of the American War of Independence might have been different. A Cleopatra’s Nose Theory for modern Western civilisation. Mildred died following childbirth, she was buried alongside her baby daughter and a woman called Jane, Mildred’s African slave servant. It was illegal for an African to be buried in a British graveyard at the time; for Jane to be buried in the family plot alongside Mildred speaks volumes about their relationship.

The Gale house, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

The Gale house, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

The Gale house, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

The Gale house, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

The connections between this part of England and the United States are many, largely due to trade and emigration. There were particularly strong links with tobacco plantations in Virginia, and Whitehaven became the preeminent centre of imported tobacco. Many of the town’s wonderful Georgian buildings were built from the profits. Its no surprise that Washington’s family lived in Westmoreland County, Virginia, named after the County of Westmoreland, England, close to where Whitehaven is situated. The town of Whitehaven, Maryland, was founded by George Gale, Mildred’s second husband.

Another connection with the American War of Independence is non-other than ‘father of the American navy’, John Paul Jones. Jones was Scottish but moved to Whitehaven as a boy, he began sailing from the port when he was thirteen. He regularly visited Virginia, where his brother had settled, sailing on various trade and slave ships. History has been favourable to Jones, but his reputation as a fighter for American Independence can’t erase his reputation as a violent ship’s captain. He once flogged a man so severely he died, another time he killed one of his crew in an argument.

18th Century watchtower, Whitehaven Harbour, Cumbria, England

18th Century watchtower, Whitehaven Harbour, Cumbria, England

18th Century watchtower, Whitehaven Harbour, Cumbria, England

18th Century watchtower, Whitehaven Harbour, Cumbria, England

Jones had serious disputes with the High Command in America and was dispatched to France. Sailing from here, acting more like a pirate than a war commander, in 1778 he attacked and attempted to sack his former home of Whitehaven. He planned to set fire to the ships in the port – over 200 vessels were moored there – and burn the town to the ground. His men came ashore and spiked the main harbour guns, but the attack was bungled from the start. He might still have been successful, but his crew went to a pub and got drunk. The townsfolk were alerted and Jones fled.

Gunnery sculpture, Whitehaven Harbour, Cumbria, England

Gunnery sculpture, Whitehaven Harbour, Cumbria, England

Whitehaven Harbour, Cumbria, England

Whitehaven Harbour, Cumbria, England

It’s hard to imagine today, but Whitehaven was a vital British port and a justifiable military target. Although its easy to believe there was something personal in Jones’ attack on the town. I’m glad he failed to burn the town, it would have destroyed some wonderful architecture. Today the attack is commemorated by a sculpture on the harbour. A sailor, defending the town, is firing a cannon towards the ocean where Jones’ ship would have been. The cannons are originals from 1778.

Georgian architecture, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Georgian architecture, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Georgian architecture, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Georgian architecture, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

For a small town, Whitehaven has seen its share of historical incident. I wandered the streets as the winter sun set and darkness descended, and found myself in a small square where a plaque caught my attention. This recounted a bizarre incident. It transpires that Jonathan Swift, the legendary Irish satirist, lived in the town as an infant. A little more research into this uncovered a genuine mystery. His nurse essentially kidnapped him and came to Whitehaven where Swift lived in her care for three or four years.

Jonathan Swift's house overlooking Whitehaven Harbour, Cumbria, England

Jonathan Swift’s house overlooking Whitehaven Harbour, Cumbria, England

Plaque to Jonathan Swift, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Plaque to Jonathan Swift, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Debate rages about the importance of this experience for Swift, but some biographers believe his masterpiece, Gulliver’s Travels, was influenced by witnessing the activity around Whitehaven harbour. The house Swift lived in still stands, and has exceptional views over the port. I imagine the young boy watching the activity around the port. Seeing ships coming and going to destinations all over the world, and exotic produce being unloaded on the docks, must have left a strong impression.

One biographer has even claimed that Swift was born in this house…another Cleopatra’s Nose Theory, perhaps?

Rum and the slave trade: Whitehaven’s ‘Dark Spirit’

Whitehaven, a small town on England’s north west coast, feels a bit down-at-heel. In rival towns people refer to those from Whitehaven as Jam Eaters, supposedly because they can’t afford meat in their sandwiches. Yet, walking around the town centre, it’s clear that there is something extraordinary about Whitehaven. Here, in this unlikely spot, is the largest collection of Georgian-era buildings outside of London. Ignore the cars and modern shop frontages, and the town is like a Georgian theme park.

Whitehaven harbour and Candlestick Chimney, Cumbria, England

Whitehaven harbour and Candlestick Chimney, Cumbria, England

Candlestick Chimney, Whitehaven Harbour, Cumbria, England

Candlestick Chimney, Whitehaven Harbour, Cumbria, England

The story of Whitehaven is the story of a powerful aristocratic family, the expansion of global trade throughout the 17th and 18th Centuries, followed by stagnation and decline in the 20th Century. It is also the story of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, and the role of British trade in shipping millions of Africans into slavery in the Americas. Whitehaven grew rich from trade that depended upon slavery: tobacco from Virginia and, most famously, rum and sugar from slave plantations in the Caribbean. The Rum Story, a museum telling this history, was my destination after walking from St. Bees.

Pub in Georgian building, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Pub in Georgian building, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

The Rum Story, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

The Rum Story, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Georgian building, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Georgian building, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Whitehaven was owned by the Lowther family – Earls of Westmoreland and the county’s wealthiest aristocratic dynasty. It was built on a grid system designed by Sir Christopher Wren, and has been described as the first ‘company town’ of the Industrial Revolution. The Lowther family made a fortune from exporting the region’s huge coal reserves to Ireland. This trade made Whitehaven wealthy, and released a vast amount of money for ship building and trade with the New World.

Jefferson's 1785 Dark Rum, The Rum Story, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Jefferson’s 1785 Dark Rum, The Rum Story, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

The Rum Story, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

The Rum Story, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

One of the most important ports in the country, Whitehaven had extensive trade with the colonies in the United States and the Caribbean, and was a major departure point for emigrating Scots and Northern English. The major port for tobacco from Virginia in the 17th Century, it is a town with intimate links to the slave trade. In the 18th Century, rum distilled from molasses on slave plantations in the Caribbean would become synonymous with Whitehaven.

Rum and sugar became Whitehaven’s driving force, it’s ‘dark spirit’. Ships sailed from Whitehaven loaded with manufactured products, including rum, to be traded for African slaves; they were shipped in appalling conditions to the Caribbean and traded for sugar and rum; which were shipped to Whitehaven. One of the region’s most famous products, Kendal Mint Cake, was the result of Caribbean sugar arriving in Whitehaven. Yet, the town became a centre for opposition to the slave trade and ended its role in the ‘human trade’ around 1770.

Slavery exhibit, The Rum Story, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Slavery exhibit, The Rum Story, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Slavery exhibit, The Rum Story, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Slavery exhibit, The Rum Story, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

The Rum Story museum explores Whitehaven’s rum and slave connections by tracing the story of local wine merchants, the Jefferson family. Rum was first discovered by slaves working in sugar plantations in the Caribbean. Despite having a reputation as being “a hot, hellish, and terrible liquor”, rum soon became popular, especially on the boats which plied the trade between Europe, Africa and the New World. The Jefferson’s owned a slave plantation in Antigua, which produced sugar, molasses and Jefferson brand rum.

Slavery exhibit, The Rum Story, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Slavery exhibit, The Rum Story, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

The museum is fascinating, it does a good job of explaining the brutality and brutal economics of the slave trade, and the terrible working conditions slaves faced in the Caribbean. It also shines a light on little known aspects of Whitehaven’s history. One of the least ethnically diverse places in the country today, in the 1770s and 1780s there were a large number of free slaves arriving in Whitehaven. Some were servants of families returning to England during the War of American Independence; others were slaves freed because they fought for the British and emigrated to England after the war.

The Rum Story, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

The Rum Story, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Rum cellar, The Rum Story, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Rum cellar, The Rum Story, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Rum cellar, The Rum Story, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Rum cellar, The Rum Story, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

The museum benefits from being housed in the original Jefferson buildings. You walk through the 18th Century Bonded Warehouse, the original cellars and even the office as it would have looked in the 19th Century. There are exhibitions on the traditional use of rum in the navy – which paints a terrifying picture of general drunkenness; a section on the island of Antigua; and a section dedicated to rum and prohibition. Perhaps best of all, they offer you a taster shot of rum as you leave.

Giant barrel, The Rum Story, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Giant barrel, The Rum Story, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England

Whitehaven Harbour, Cumbria, England

Whitehaven Harbour, Cumbria, England

A few hours spent in Whitehaven was enlightening, I discovered a history that I never imagined existed before. A history involving an American President, his mother-in-law and an American War of Independence hero…

Above the roaring ocean on Cumbria’s Heritage Coast

Leaving the tumultuous crashing waves of the Irish Sea behind, and narrowly avoiding ‘a furious devout drench’*, I headed north over the three hundred foot-high red sandstone cliffs of St. Bees Head. This is the first (or last) segment of the 192 mile-long Coast to Coast walk, which after a few miles turns inland towards England’s East Coast. One day I’ll do the whole route, but this time my ambitions were more local. I was on my way to the Georgian-era town of Whitehaven, six and a half miles from St. Bees.

St. Bees Head, Cumbria, England

St. Bees Head, Cumbria, England

St. Bees Head, Cumbria, England

St. Bees Head, Cumbria, England

The giant fissured red sandstone cliffs make this a dramatic segment of coast. They also make it one of the most important, and largest, seabird colonies in North West England. Much of the area is an RSPB Nature reserve: cormorants, guillemots, kittiwakes, razorbills, white throat herring gulls, fulmars, rock pipits, whitethroats, linnets and stonechats all live here. I mention this array of our feathered friends because, as you walk along the cliff tops, there are times when the smell of fishy excrement is almost overpowering.

Reaching the top of St. Bees Head, you are greeted by breathtaking views north across the cliffs and south along the beaches of St. Bees. On a clear day you can see the Isle of Man and both the Scottish and Irish coasts. From this vantage point, its easy to understand why this is the only section of the English coast between Wales and Scotland to be designated as a Heritage Coast. It is truly beautiful. The pounding waves below adding a suitably melodramatic soundtrack to accompany the visual treat stretching ahead.

View north from St. Bees Head, Cumbria, England

View north from St. Bees Head, Cumbria, England

View north from St. Bees Head, Cumbria, England

View north from St. Bees Head, Cumbria, England

From St. Bees Head you can clearly see the St. Bees Lighthouse, a speck of brilliant white surrounded by green fields on top of another cliff top hill. This is North Head, which has the distinction of being the most westerly point in Northern England. Following the path downwards, the route passes through farmland before reaching a natural gap between the two headlands.

Cumbrian Heritage Coast, Cumbria, England

Cumbrian Heritage Coast, Cumbria, England

St. Bees Lighthouse, Cumbrian Heritage Coast, Cumbria, England

St. Bees Lighthouse, Cumbrian Heritage Coast, Cumbria, England

This is Fleswick Bay, where its possible to walk down to a sandy beach nestling underneath the towering cliffs. At least, its possible when the tide is out. When I was there, an unusually high tide was most definitely ‘in’, waves thundering into the bay. Clambering back up the other side, I was soon in front of the lighthouse. There has been a lighthouse here since 1718, but the original one burnt down in 1822 – until then, it was the only surviving coal-powered lighthouse in the country. The current lighthouse replaced it. Today, electrified and automated, its beam of light can be seen 21 nautical miles away.

St. Bees Lighthouse, Cumbrian Heritage Coast, Cumbria, England

St. Bees Lighthouse, Cumbrian Heritage Coast, Cumbria, England

Cumbrian Heritage Coast, Cumbria, England

Cumbrian Heritage Coast, Cumbria, England

St. Bees Lighthouse, Cumbrian Heritage Coast, Cumbria, England

St. Bees Lighthouse, Cumbrian Heritage Coast, Cumbria, England

Walking around the headland of North Head, you soon see the town of Whitehaven in the distance. There were still three miles of walking left to do, but at least I could see my destination. The sun was illuminating the two small lighthouses at the entrance to Whitehaven harbour and the Candlestick Chimney, a former ventilation shaft built in 1850 for one of the region’s many coal mines.

View of Whitehaven, Cumbrian Heritage Coast, Cumbria, England

View of Whitehaven, Cumbrian Heritage Coast, Cumbria, England

View of Whitehaven, Cumbrian Heritage Coast, Cumbria, England

View of Whitehaven, Cumbrian Heritage Coast, Cumbria, England

At the point where the Coast to Coast route heads east, the path to Whitehaven starts a long, gradual descent back to the sea. The route is mainly farmland, but it does pass a sandstone quarry still quarrying the rock which has been used for building in this area for centuries. Eventually the route reaches the historic port of Whitehaven, the main part of which dates from the 17th Century when Whitehaven was one of the most important ports in England…

View of Whitehaven, Cumbrian Heritage Coast, Cumbria, England

View of Whitehaven, Cumbrian Heritage Coast, Cumbria, England

View of Whitehaven, Cumbrian Heritage Coast, Cumbria, England

View of Whitehaven, Cumbrian Heritage Coast, Cumbria, England

Whitehaven harbour and Candlestick Chimney, Cumbria, England

Whitehaven harbour and Candlestick Chimney, Cumbria, England

* A line from Philip Larkin’s poem Water

Fact or fiction? An ancient Irish Princess on the Cumbrian Heritage Coast

Stepping off the tiny, two carriage train in the picturesque village of St. Bees, the roar of the ocean is audible long before you see it. At least today, a day of high winds and high tides, the noise of the Irish Sea crashing into the mighty sandstone cliffs of the West Cumbrian Coast, easily carries the half mile inland to the train station. Even at this distance I can tell that the sea is rough, and my planned walk along the Cumbria Heritage Coast might be wetter than expected.

St. Bees Head, St. Bees Priory, Cumbria, England

St. Bees Head, St. Bees Priory, Cumbria, England

West Cumbria is often overlooked by visitors to the region, overshadowed by the nearby Lake District National Park. It has been a long time since I visited and, although the weather can be terrible, this is an area full of natural beauty with a history as surprising as it is fascinating.

This region has suffered significant economic decline, with communities gutted as industries closed. For years this was one Britain’s most depressed and deprived areas; a status seemingly at odds with the beauty of the landscape. The transport infrastructure doesn’t help. The train route meanders along the coast, cutting inland around bays and estuaries. It’s a beautiful route, but even the relatively short journey to St. Bees takes over two and a half hours. A day-trip on public transport is an endurance test.

St. Bees Priory, St. Bees, Cumbria, England

St. Bees Priory, St. Bees, Cumbria, England

St. Bees Priory, St. Bees, Cumbria, England

St. Bees Priory, St. Bees, Cumbria, England

From the early 17th Century onwards, shipping, mining and trade with the Americas and Caribbean were the drivers of the economy. A predominantly rural region, West Cumbria was remarkably industrialised, connected to far flung corners of the globe through trade. This has left an industrial and cultural legacy that is only just beginning to be exploited for tourism.

There are many small towns and villages worth a visit, but one that already attracts thousands of visitors annually is St. Bees. This pleasant village is the start/end point of the 192 mile Coast to Coast walk, popularised by Alfred Wainwright. Its proximity to the beautiful and rugged coastline, and the beach which sits beneath the cliffs, draws visitors; but it is the former Benedictine Priory of St. Bees, and the legend of St. Bega, that sparks the imagination.

St. Bees Priory, St. Bees, Cumbria, England

St. Bees Priory, St. Bees, Cumbria, England

Norman doorway, St. Bees Priory, Cumbria, England

Norman doorway, St. Bees Priory, Cumbria, England

Celtic cross, St. Bees Priory, Cumbria, England

Celtic cross, St. Bees Priory, Cumbria, England

The name St. Bees is a corruption of St. Bega. Reputed to have been a beautiful and virtuous Irish Princess, St. Bega fled Ireland to avoid an arranged marriage. She lived the life of a hermit, in isolation and poverty in St. Bees. Fearful that Vikings, who were pillaging along this coast, would rape her, she fled to Northumbria leaving behind her one worldly possession, a bracelet. Naturally, St. Bega, and her bracelet, became the focus of worship at the Norman-era Priory built in St. Bees in the 12th Century.

There was a thriving cult dedicated to St. Bega by the time the Benedictine Priory was built around 1120. The cult was still going strong in the early 16th Century, when records show a large amount of money being donated to ‘the bracelet of St. Bega’. She is credited with several ‘miracles’ and in Bassenthwaite, only a short distance away in the Lake District, there is a church dedicated to St. Bega. This is fine, but there’s evidence to suggest that St. Bega didn’t exist.

The legend of St. Bega, St. Bees, Cumbria, England

The legend of St. Bega, St. Bees, Cumbria, England

It’s argued that St. Bega is a Christian invention based on pre-existing pagan beliefs. This is why her bracelet is important. The local word for bracelet is ‘beag’ and there may have been a sacred pagan bracelet that took human, and Christian, form as St. Bega. In a world where Christianity was encroaching on pagan beliefs, apparently this isn’t improbably. An alternative theory is that chroniclers confused her with an entirely different person. There seem to have been quite a few Irish women living as hermits who later got canonised. These and other theories are explained here.

St. Bees Priory, St. Bees, Cumbria, England

St. Bees Priory, St. Bees, Cumbria, England

Stained glass window, St. Bees Priory, Cumbria, England

Stained glass window, St. Bees Priory, Cumbria, England

Carved coffin lids, St. Bees Priory, Cumbria, England

Carved coffin lids, St. Bees Priory, Cumbria, England

Whether she existed or not, in 2000 the local council decided to commission a sculpture of her. Not everyone is a fan. The woman I asked for directions said, “She’s supposed to be an Irish Princess, but she looks like a chubby fisherwoman.” To be fair, the sculptor didn’t have any pictures to work from. The sculpture depicts her arriving in a small boat. I’m no expert, but if she sailed that boat across the Irish Sea she deserves her own cult. Then again, since she’s probably fictional, I’m not sure it matters.

Sculpture of St. Bega, St. Bees Priory, Cumbria, England

Sculpture of St. Bega, St. Bees Priory, Cumbria, England

Carved stones found at the Priory of St. Bees indicate that Gaelic-Scandinavian settlers lived in this area in the 10th Century. This community probably lived in relative isolation until the arrival of the conquering Normans in 1092. It was William le Meschin, a Norman Baron, who extended the existing religious site into the Benedictine Priory. The Priory functioned as a religious institution – a wealthy one at that – until the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539. It continues to be used as the parish church, but many of the original buildings have disappeared.

The Priory has seen much history and has many secrets. In 1981, during excavations of a 14th Century burial site, a mystery was unearthed – a coffin containing a six hundred year-old male body. Known as St Bees Man, remarkably his nails, skin and stomach contents were found to be in near-perfect condition. The body has been identified as either Anthony de Lucy, a knight who died in the Teutonic Crusades in 1368, or Robert of Harrington, buried here in 1297. It’s all a bit Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, and the carved Norman doorway and coffin lids inside the church add to that feeling.

Carved coffin lids, St. Bees Priory, Cumbria, England

Carved coffin lids, St. Bees Priory, Cumbria, England

Carved coffin lids, St. Bees Priory, Cumbria, England

Carved coffin lids, St. Bees Priory, Cumbria, England

Walking away from the Priory towards the start of the coastal path, I could hear the ocean getting louder. Suddenly, the headland and ocean came into view – giant waves were pounding into the cliffs and onto the beach with a ferocity I’ve rarely seen. Above the ocean I could see the track that would take me over St. Bees Head and onto the beautiful route that follows the cliffs to Whitehaven. The wind was blowing hard at my back and the sun had decided to shine for the first time in weeks. Onwards and upwards…

St. Bees Head, St. Bees Priory, Cumbria, England

St. Bees Head, St. Bees Priory, Cumbria, England

St. Bees Head, St. Bees Priory, Cumbria, England

St. Bees Head, St. Bees Priory, Cumbria, England